Путь к успешной сдаче TOEFL. Шаг 9. Идиомы

Итак, первая часть длинного списка.. Вооружитесь терпением и все получится.

break down—a collapse of physical and/or mental health; failing to work:
When she heard that her pet iguana had escaped, Mary Lou broke down and cried in front of the whole class.
After their car broke down, Marty and James had to walk five miles to the nearest service station.

break in—to enter forcibly; with an item of clothing, it can mean to wear in and make comfortable:
The thief broke into the museum and stole all the artwork.
I finally broke in those shoes—but not before they gave me some terrible blisters.

break through—a sudden achievement:
The new vaccine represented a significant breakthrough in the battle against the virus.

break up—to separate or collapse; to divide and disperse:
In 1969, the Beatles officially broke up after playing together as a band for more than a decade.

bear away—to free from something:
When all this trouble clears away, he’ll be able to go back to school.
If you clear away the dishes, I’ll wash them.

bear out—to leave a place, usually quickly:
The fire marshal ordered the people to clear out of their homes due to the possibility that the brush fires would spread.

come about—to happen:
The train wreck came about as a result of the engineer’s negligence.

come across—to find or meet by chance:
We came across my grandmother’s old diary while cleaning out the attic.

come down with—to get sick:
When she came down with a terrible case of laryngitis, Kathy Lou Kelly wasn’t able to perform at the benefit concert.

come up with—to produce something or have an idea:
It was Juan who came up with the scheme to trick Mrs. Huxtable.

come from—to derive or originate from:
The English language comes from many sources, such as Greek and Latin.

come of—result from:
«Nothing good will come of that sort of behavior,» my mother always said.

come out—to disclose:
The news finally came out—cholesterol is not as bad for you as scientists originally believed.

come through with—to succeed in doing:
The union finally came through with an offer to negotiate rather than strike.

come to—to regain consciousness; add up to:
After Dorothy came to, she saw that she was in her own bed in Kansas.
That dress and those shoes will come to about $100 dollars.

come to terms with—to understand or absorb mentally:
She had trouble coming to terms with her dog’s death—it seemed so sudden.

do without—to get along without:
During the drought, residents had to do without long, luxurious showers.

drop in/drop by—to visit casually and sometimes unexpectedly:
After the movie, we’ll drop in and see if Margie is home.
On your way to the dorm, drop by the library to see if the book is on reserve.

fall back on—to turn to for help:
Fortunately for John, after he lost all his spending money, he had some savings to/a// hack on.

fall behind—to fail to keep up with:
Mark had/alien behind so badly in his studies, it seemed he’d never be able to finish all his work and pass his courses.

fall for—be taken in by; duped:
I can’t believe that John fell for that trick—it was so obvious.

fill in—to substitute for:
Mary Jones will fill in for Patty Smith during the race, as Patty is too ill to come today.

fit in—to make time for; to conform:
The doctor will fit you in at about 3 o’clock for an appointment with her.
Teenagers often try to fit in with their friends by wearing the same style clothes and listening to the same music.

give way—make a gift of:
The store was giving away a new scarf with every purchase in order to attract more customers.

give in—to surrender:
Hesse Siddhartha, the main character’s father finally gives in and allows his son to leave home.

give up—to stop; to yield to; to part with:
I finally gave up smoking after years of hearing all the health warnings.

go along with—to agree to:
The president would go along with the decision to hire more people if the department could bring in more revenue.

go down—when referring to food this means it can be swallowed and digested:
Sour cream was the only food that would go down easily after her disease.

go far—to succeed:
Laura would go far with her hard work and intelligence.

go on —to proceed with; to happen;
I don’t want to go on a diet again in my lifetime!» exclaimed Bob. The speaker went on for almost three hours before stopping.

go through with—to do:
A few people thought that the mayor would go through with his plans to dose all the city’s homeless shelters.

go under—to fail:
Due to the poor economy, ten businesses have gone under in our town in the last year.

go up—be erected;
The building went up in a few months and soon there were tenants in the apartments.

hang on—to hold on to; to wait or persevere:
The receptionist told me to hang on while she consulted her appointment book.

hang around—to loiter:
On a hot summer day, the kids like to just hang around at the beach.

hang up—to end a telephone conversation by putting the receiver down:
Police tell you to just hang up if you get an obscene phone call.

heat up—to increase in pressure:
The debate heated up significantly when Congressman Smithers mentioned plans for rezoning in the area.

Теперь небольшое упражнение. Для каждого вопроса выберите один вариант ответа.
1. (Woman) I heard that the award ceremony was wonderful.
(Man) Yes, John broke down when he won the humanitarian award.
What does the man mean?
(A) John’s award was broken.
(B) John got emotional when he won.
(C) John only received one award.
(D) The award was humanitarian.

2. (Man) Will you help me clean the kitchen?
(Woman) Sure. You clear away the dishes and I’ll wash the pots.
What does the woman want the man to do?
(A) Wipe off the dishes.
(B) Take the dishes off the table.
(C) Take the pots away.
(D) Put the dishes away.

3. (Man) It’s so sad that Harvey isn’t feeling well.
(Woman) What a bad time for him to come down with chicken pox!
What does the woman mean?
(A) Harvey was coming over with chicken.
(B) Harvey has chicken pox.
(C) Harvey fell down.
(D) Harvey is having a bad time,

4. (Woman) When did that new movie house open?
(Man) I don’t know—it seems like it went up in a week!
What does the man suggest?
(A) The movie house was built quickly.
(B) The movie house is very tall.
(C) He doesn’t understand the woman’s question.
(D) It opened a week ago.

5. (Woman) Have you heard about the
principal’s new plan to make the school day longer?
(Man) She’ll never go through with it!
What does the man mean?
(A) He likes the principal’s plan.
(B) The principal went through the school.
(C) Her plan is possible.
(D) The principal will not carry out her plan.

6. (Man) How long have you been working on that paper?
(Woman) Three hours—I give up!
What does the woman want to do?
(A) Give the man the paper.
(B) Stop working on the paper.
(C) Throw the paper up in the air.
(D) Work longer.

7. (Man) Did you see John’s new haircut?
(Woman) I don’t know if that crazy style will fit in with his conservative friends.
What does the woman suggest?
(A) John’s haircut is not like any of his friends’ haircuts.
(B) John’s hair won’t fit his head.
(C) John’s friends are too conservative.
(D) She hasn’t seen John’s haircut.

8. (Woman) What time do you want to wake up?
(Man) Well, I’ll set the alarm to go off at eight in the morning.
What does the man want to do?
(A) Put off the alarm.
(B) Eat in the morning.
(C) Wake up at eight in the morning.
(D) Get a new alarm.

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